Patchen Barss |
March 25, 2014
We’re standing in an unconventional laboratory in a campus research facility – the kind of place you’d never imagine anything unusual happens.
A technician lowers a sample of experimental material F07026 into a bath of heated triglyceride compounds.
Several molecular changes happen at once. A process called the Maillard reaction causes the sugars in F07026 to caramelize and darken. The triglycerides – also known as vegetable oil – displace the water in the material. The evicted water causes the bath to roil and spit.
As soon as the water has boiled away and the oil is calm again, the technician removes the samples, spreading them out to cool.
The experiment requires one more step to complete: the addition of sodium chloride crystals.
Salted potato chips, ready to eat.
The University of Guelph has had a frying lab since the 1980s. Those were heady days for potato research at the university, the pinnacle of which was the development of the Yukon Gold potato.
There’s a new quest now: the race is on to find an even greater tater.
What does this wonder spud of the future have that today’s tubers do not? For one thing, plant breeders are looking for a strain of potato that can be stored at cooler temperatures without its starches turning to sugar.
“The industry is always interested in knowing whether varieties will produce good quality chips when stored at a lower temperature because they can reduce sprout inhibitors and maintain dormancy longer, says Vanessa Currie, the research technician who has been frying sample batches for me.
One potato? Two potatoes? Actually, it’s one potato stored two different ways.
Currie laid out two portions of chips on the table. Both were made from F07026 potatoes, which had been grown, harvested sliced and fried exactly the same way. But the differences were stark: one pile was tawny and delicious, while the other dark brown stack tasted burnt and bitter.
The difference was in how they had been stored after harvest. The burnt chips came from spuds stored at 4 degrees, while the tastier snack had spent the winter at 10-12 degrees. In the cooler storage area, more starch turned to sugar, and that made all the difference.
“The Maillard reaction causes sugars to brown when frying,” said Alan Sullivan, a Guelph researcher and plant breeder who oversees potato research at the university. “The sugars combine with amino acids and cause a dark colour. In a lot of foods that’s fine. In fact, it’s what gives bread and seared meat their appealing colour.”
But in the deep fryer, too much sugar spoils the chip.
Chip producers want a spud that keeps its starch at 4-8 degrees: If they could store them at that temperature, they could reduce their use of sprout inhibitors and anti-pest chemicals. They could store the potatoes for longer, which would lead to major cost savings.
Cold storage is just one issue of concern for the Guelph researchers. Another desirable quality is rapid maturation (which would allow for a longer harvesting season and less storage time).
“Potato chip producers want product 12 months of the year,” Currie says. “There’s a significant part of our season in Ontario where they don’t have local potatoes. At that time they have to import them from the States at considerable expense.”
And of course, what’s good for the chip bag is different than what’s good for the mash or the fry. Breeders aren’t seeking a single superpotato, so much as they are a variety of new strains, each optimized for starch content, water content, robustness in the face of rain and drought, yield, disease and pesticide resistance, and many other factors.
Of course, private companies like Frito Lay have their own fry labs. But Sullivan thinks there is great value in having such research take place at a university.
“We are publicly funded, and everything that we do is public,” says Sullivan. “We produce reports that are disseminated to the industry – not just potato growers but on the table stock side there are chefs who want to know what the latest is. Loblaws is also interested.”
Breeding and cross breeding is a lengthy process with many factors – sometimes you get a potato that’s great in cold storage, but the yield is inadequate. In fact, species F07026 is one of hundreds that have been researched at the university. Hope, of course, sprouts eternal.
“Everybody is looking for the next Yukon Gold,” Sullivan says.
The Research Matters blog periodically publishes a range of stories centred around a specific theme. This story is part of a series on Food and Drink.
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