iPads are child’s play
Maxine Myre | May 28, 2014
Today’s kids are surrounded by more technology than ever.
Even children ages 3-4 years old can pick up iPad skills quickly and intuitively in classrooms.Researchers at Brock University set out to explore how technology affected young children’s literacy learning. Their big question was: If you introduce iPads into early years classrooms, what happens?
“[The kids] are very inquisitive [and] very interested in learning new things, so they get right in there and start touching, and playing, and swiping,” says Debra Harwood, a researcher in early childhood education and the principal investigator of the iPad study. “They don’t have any kind of inhibitions about trying things out, which is perfect because that’s what an iPad invites the kids to do.”
Harwood and her colleagues employed a 21st-century definition of literacy that goes beyond just reading and writing.
“To me, traditional literacy has always been an ability to read printed words and to write printed words. That’s a very 20th-century mindset,” says Jennifer Rowsell, Canada Research Chair in Multiliteracies and member of the research team. “I would argue that literacy today is much more about being communicatively competent.”
Harwood and Rowsell presented some preliminary findings at Congress 2014 in St. Catherines.
They’re seeing a new world of play for young children where the boundaries between what’s real and what’s virtual are blurred. They refer to this as “convergence of play.”
They might be playing with Lego building blocks, for instance. Then they’ll grab the iPad and go onto the Lego app. They seamlessly move back and forth between the app and the concrete world.
“Sometimes as adults, we have preconceived notions about digital technology. We would say things to them, if they’re colouring on the iPad: Wow that looks like real colouring! And the child would kind of look at us and say: It is real!” says Harwood.
While there is an abundance of articles that highlight the negative effects of technology on children, Harwood argues that in the classroom context it’s all about the way they’re introduced as a tool to facilitate learning.
The researchers and educators controlled the apps that were on the iPad depending on the interests of the children. They chose apps that would foster collaborative play.
“For example, when spring came, the kids started going outside more so we were able to add apps so that they could photo-document trees, birds, those types of things, and then write stories around them,” says Harwood.
Social interactions are also an important part of the learning process. For this reason, not every child was given an iPad, but rather one for every three to four children. They saw that kids were able to problem-solve how they were going to share the iPads, either by helping their friend or negotiating a time when they would get access to it.
“So [that level of self-regulation] for me was really quite interesting because we’re talking about such young children,” says Harwood.
Another key aspect in introducing this type of technology into classrooms is teacher training. Although the tools are constantly changing in this past-paced world, it’s becoming increasingly important to train teachers in using technology as a tool to support learning.
Turns out, iPads can be a useful tool to promote literacy. It simply offers another lens for kids to explore ideas or create their understanding of things.
“I’ve always known how clever young children are. It reaffirmed that thinking on a level that I couldn’t have imagined,” says Harwood.
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Noreen Fagan | December 18, 2014Here’s a fun fact – Canadians eat more sushi than the Japanese. At least that’s what Mark Cleveland says, and he should know. Cleveland is a professor of marketing at Western University. His research focuses on the integration of cultures on a global scale and the effects of cosmopolitanism, which according to Cleveland is, “the cultural openness and the ability to successfully navigate between different cultural groups.” In other words, people who want to understand and experience other cultures do so by fully immersing themselves in that culture. “You want to live the life of cultural authenticity, by trying to understand the culture through that culture’s eyes,” he says. Cleveland’s interest in cultural openness started when he was a Master’s and then a Ph.D. student at Concordia University in Montreal. He started researching how new immigrants, primarily ethic minorities, adapted to Canadian culture by finding ways to combine their traditional identities, culture and values into mainstream society. “I have always believed that just because you learn another culture does not mean you give up the original culture. You can be bicultural or multicultural and the two can reinforce each other,” says Cleveland. “Not only are minorities affected by cultural exchange but the majority are as well.” Canada’s multiculturalism prompted Cleveland to extend his research into globalization, with a focus on how global cultures affect majority populations around the world. In the last decade Cleveland has conducted research in 15 to 20 countries exploring cultural exchange and cosmopolitanism. He says a person no longer has to travel abroad – although it helps – to become cosmopolitan. A person can experience different cultures in the comfort of their own home or neighbourhood, simply by watching TV, surfing the Internet, playing videos on You Tube or buying and consuming different products. “When we buy products, and types of brands and the reasons for buying them, they are like extensions of ourselves,” he says. So how do the sushi–eating Canadians fit into all of this? Cleveland believes if a person wants to experience cultural authenticity they will gear their shopping towards achieving that aim. In other words, a person is not going to go for the North American version of sushi (think Californian Roll), when they can get the real thing – think Unagi. He says there is probably a general global trend towards cultural openness as people become more educated and have more exposure to other cultures but he warns, there is another side. “A lot of people are really opposed to what is happening with Globalization and they see their culture as under threat,” says Cleveland adding that the threat is heightened when people feel insecure. If people are feeling secure in their surroundings (financially, emotionally and physically), the more open they are to cultural exchange and the more cosmopolitan they become. Being cosmopolitan however, does not mean buying local is a thing of the past; in fact what makes cosmopolitans stand out is that they strive for cultural authenticity. “The more cosmopolitan you are means you are not only interested in preserving differences but also interested in the environment, like getting the best locally,” says Cleveland. In terms of cosmopolitanism Cleveland thinks Canadians are more accepting of other cultures. “We are a new country, most of us go back two or three generations and have one or two grandparents born somewhere else. We have a more fluid identity,” he says, adding that as large cities go, Toronto is well integrated. “We are not just living in these areas dominated by our own ethic group, there are more opportunities to mix, and I think that allows us to become more open-minded.”