When is the next bus route?
Patchen Barss | May 29, 2014
“Although people think building more highways will alleviate congestion, it actually increases it,” says Nicholas Savelli, a Brock University undergraduate student and urban geographer. He was speaking at Congress 2014 at a symposium on urban development.
Savelli and several colleagues have been studying the relationship between urban growth and public transit.
“Currently, 50 percent of world’s population lives in urban dwellings. By 2030, that will be 60 percent,” he said. “How do we make our cities smarter and more efficient? This is a global issue, and we are four undergraduate students. We wanted to localize things close to home. We monitored the change of land use and land cover in the cities of St. Catharines and Thorold. We wanted to determine if the St. Catharines public transit system meets the need of its future users.”
He’s interested in making better decisions about new public transit lines that reflect and serve an ever changing city.
His current data suggest that bus routes lag behind changes to the city – areas get denser or spread wider, and these changes are not reflected in local bus routes. The trick, he says, is to understand not just how things have changed, but how they will change.
“One of the big things is planning,” he says. “If we can draw people into the core, and provide a system that works for them, then we can develop more effective transit routes that alleviate congestion.”
He’s working not only on better data collection and analysis to inform decisions on public transit routes, but also is looking at ways to objectively measure the effectiveness of existing transit systems around the world.
“For the past half a century, we’ve had all this faith in the automobile,” he says. “I think that’s an opportunity for us to change, and correct our transportation networks.”
Like most university researcher, he is interested both in knowledge creation, and also in seeing to it that his insights and ideas have an impact. As his research continues, he and his colleagues are already in talks to develop a working relationship with the St. Catharines Transit Commission.
“I would love to see walkable cities, and cities where all forms of transportation have equal value – where public transportation isn’t perceived as something for second-class citizens,” he says. “In the information age, big data and smart cities are the way of the future. If we continue to lag behind, we’re not going to be able to realize this vision.”
From manuscript to search ...
Guest blog by Chris Nighman | October 23, 2014Long before the advent of the Internet, and well before Gutenberg invented moveable type, medieval intellectuals devised information technologies to take advantage of a growing mass of Big Data repositories known as “manuscripts.” read more »
If you’re happy ...
Cathy Majtenyi | October 22, 2014Brock University recently launched a series of monthly podcasts covering a wide range of themes. As part of our own package of “Belief” related blog posts, Research Matters is pleased to present this exclusive interview with Brock Associate Professor of Psychology, Michael Busseri. Busseri will join two other colleagues to explore this topic in Brock’s January 2015 podcast, “What gives us a sense of wellbeing?” read more »
Lucid dreaming depends on ...
Trent University Staff | October 21, 2014New research by Trent University Oshawa Anthropology professor Roger Lohmann and graduate student Shayne Dahl indicates that cultural learning shapes the kind of awareness and control people can experience while dreaming. “Scouring the ethnographic record on dreaming for hints of lucidity under Professor Lohmann’s guidance, I found something surprising: that lucid dreaming is widely thought to have serious consequences,” said Dahl, who completed his M.A. thesis, “Knowing Means Connecting with the Source of Life: Knowledge and Ethics among Blackfoot Traditionalists” at Trent in 2012. (He is now a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Toronto.) “As one of my Blackfoot informants put it, ‘You could die in your dream.’” Lohmann and Dahl’s findings were published in the 2014 collection, Lucid Dreaming: New Perspectives on Consciousness in Sleep. Lucid dreaming – waking consciousness arising during a dream – has been a hot topic of scientific research in recent years. According to Lohmann and Dahl, the common assumption that dreams are products of isolated imaginations has distorted our understanding of lucidity’s variation in form, function, and real-world outcomes. Pop culture portrayals in films such as Avatar and Inception present fantasies where lucid dreaming enables marvelous real-world powers. Many traditional and religious cultural worldviews take the relationship between waking and dream worlds as reality rather than fantasy. Lohmann’s fieldwork in Papua New Guinea among the Asabano people explored how they used dreaming as evidence for and contact with supernatural beings. “Asabano converts often told me that seeing dreams of Jesus or Heaven convinced them that what the missionary told them was true,” said Lohmann. “It struck me that they had to believe their dreams were more than figments of their own imaginations to reach that conclusion, and that I, for example, would not be convinced by the same experience because of my different cultural background.” Similarly, Dahl’s fieldwork in Alberta included encounters with Aboriginal medicine men who practiced lucid dreaming. “Shayne’s field experiences and his search of ethnographic literature brought home to us that lucid dreaming has profound potential for people who think it’s more than just a fantasy. We found that descriptions of lucid dreams are radically different in form, function, and outcome depending on the cultural assumptions of the dreamer,” said Lohmann. Their research revealed evidence that in some cultures, lucid dreaming is unknown, while in others it is a commonly taught skill. In some, lucidity is tacit rather than acknowledged, but people nevertheless believe that they actively undertake goals in their dreams. Lohmann and Dahl found that this implicitly lucid “volitional dreaming” commonly appears in ethnographic accounts of dreaming. In cultures where “generative” theory holds sway, dreaming of something is understood to cause it to happen in the waking world. This leads people to experience lucid dreams as opportunities to create or do magic. By contrast, people who believe dreams are what one sees during “soul travel” use lucid dreams as an opportunity to spiritually visit real places. “Even when we consciously disbelieve our dreams,” Dahl said, “They still affect us at a deeper, emotional level that we can’t easily control with reason.” “All of this shows that cultural dream theories are multiple, that people invoke them in complex ways, and that they are at the very core of what lucid dreaming is and what it makes possible,” said Lohmann. This story was originally published by Trent University on, July 15, 2014. Is has been edited for style, brevity and clarity and appears here with permission.
In money we trust
U of T Staff (With introduction by Patchen Barss) | October 20, 2014A few years ago, late, late at night, I was tooling around the streets of Ottawa in the back seat of a Jeep being driven by former Bank of Canada Governor David Dodge. American economist and Nobel Laureate George Akerlof was riding shotgun. read more »