Arsenic and new tests
UOIT Staff | May 30, 2014
For the past two decades, arsenic contamination of groundwater has posed one of the most serious public health threats in the south Asian nation of Bangladesh, one of the world’s most densely populated countries. Compounding the problem over the years has been the costly – and sometimes dangerous – methods of testing water samples.
A 2008 World Health Organization report estimated up to 70 million people in Bangladesh drink water that contains unsafe arsenic levels. Health problems associated with arsenic poisoning include diarrhea, vomiting, convulsions and some types of cancers.
A researcher with the University of Ontario Institute of Institute of Technology (UOIT) is working hard to help develop a new paper-based method of testing water sources in Bangladesh that is both effective and inexpensive.
Brendan MacDonald, an Assistant Professor in UOIT’s Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, has been recognized for his innovative research approach with a new funding award of $112,000 from Grand Challenges Canada (GCC) through its Stars in Global Health seed grant program.
“Our research team travelled to Bangladesh for nine days at the end of April and early May, and we are getting very positive feedback for the tests we will be developing,” said MacDonald. “Field-test kits used in the past create a multi-stage reaction which can actually generate toxic chemicals. But we know paper works in medical diagnostics such as pregnancy tests. Paper is readily available, inexpensive, easy to use, disposable and does not require an external power source.”
GCC is funded by the Government of Canada and dedicated to supporting bold ideas with big impact in global health. MacDonald’s project is part of GCC’s $12 million new investment in projects worldwide, aimed squarely at improving the health and saving the lives of mothers, newborns and children in developing countries.
A simple, low-cost, paper-based test for arsenic developed by MacDonald’s project will help forewarn people when water’s arsenic content exceeds safe levels.
“We are grateful to Grand Challenges Canada for its generous support of our new approach to quickly identify contaminated water sources, a system we anticipate could be applied anywhere in the future,” said MacDonald. “We believe this is the right way to safely determine the level of arsenic in water sources, prior to human consumption.”
MacDonald is collaborating on the research with Professor Nadim Khandaker, North South University of Bangladesh.
“Our government is proud of the progress on promises Canada and other nations made as part of the Muskoka Initiative to improve the health and save the lives of women, newborns and children in the developing world,” said the Honourable Christian Paradis, Minister of International Development and Minister for La Francophonie. “By supporting innovative proof-of-concept projects and the scale-up of proven ideas, and by leveraging additional private sector knowledge and funds, a difference is being felt in health conditions in developing countries. The creation of jobs here and abroad serves as an added benefit.”
“All of the projects announced today illustrate the power of innovation to save and improve the lives of women and children,” said Peter A. Singer, Chief Executive Officer, GCC.
“Innovation really means that tomorrow will be a brighter day than today for those who need it the most in developing nations. I salute the global leadership Canada is showing in focusing the world’s attention on saving every woman and every child.”
Research Matters periodically publishes multiple blog posts based on a specific theme. This story is part of a series exploring Ontario university research’s impact beyond Canada’s borders. Some stories originally appeared in individual university’s publications, and are republished here with permission.
From manuscript to search ...
Guest blog by Chris Nighman | October 23, 2014Long before the advent of the Internet, and well before Gutenberg invented moveable type, medieval intellectuals devised information technologies to take advantage of a growing mass of Big Data repositories known as “manuscripts.” read more »
If you’re happy ...
Cathy Majtenyi | October 22, 2014Brock University recently launched a series of monthly podcasts covering a wide range of themes. As part of our own package of “Belief” related blog posts, Research Matters is pleased to present this exclusive interview with Brock Associate Professor of Psychology, Michael Busseri. Busseri will join two other colleagues to explore this topic in Brock’s January 2015 podcast, “What gives us a sense of wellbeing?” read more »
Lucid dreaming depends on ...
Trent University Staff | October 21, 2014New research by Trent University Oshawa Anthropology professor Roger Lohmann and graduate student Shayne Dahl indicates that cultural learning shapes the kind of awareness and control people can experience while dreaming. “Scouring the ethnographic record on dreaming for hints of lucidity under Professor Lohmann’s guidance, I found something surprising: that lucid dreaming is widely thought to have serious consequences,” said Dahl, who completed his M.A. thesis, “Knowing Means Connecting with the Source of Life: Knowledge and Ethics among Blackfoot Traditionalists” at Trent in 2012. (He is now a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Toronto.) “As one of my Blackfoot informants put it, ‘You could die in your dream.’” Lohmann and Dahl’s findings were published in the 2014 collection, Lucid Dreaming: New Perspectives on Consciousness in Sleep. Lucid dreaming – waking consciousness arising during a dream – has been a hot topic of scientific research in recent years. According to Lohmann and Dahl, the common assumption that dreams are products of isolated imaginations has distorted our understanding of lucidity’s variation in form, function, and real-world outcomes. Pop culture portrayals in films such as Avatar and Inception present fantasies where lucid dreaming enables marvelous real-world powers. Many traditional and religious cultural worldviews take the relationship between waking and dream worlds as reality rather than fantasy. Lohmann’s fieldwork in Papua New Guinea among the Asabano people explored how they used dreaming as evidence for and contact with supernatural beings. “Asabano converts often told me that seeing dreams of Jesus or Heaven convinced them that what the missionary told them was true,” said Lohmann. “It struck me that they had to believe their dreams were more than figments of their own imaginations to reach that conclusion, and that I, for example, would not be convinced by the same experience because of my different cultural background.” Similarly, Dahl’s fieldwork in Alberta included encounters with Aboriginal medicine men who practiced lucid dreaming. “Shayne’s field experiences and his search of ethnographic literature brought home to us that lucid dreaming has profound potential for people who think it’s more than just a fantasy. We found that descriptions of lucid dreams are radically different in form, function, and outcome depending on the cultural assumptions of the dreamer,” said Lohmann. Their research revealed evidence that in some cultures, lucid dreaming is unknown, while in others it is a commonly taught skill. In some, lucidity is tacit rather than acknowledged, but people nevertheless believe that they actively undertake goals in their dreams. Lohmann and Dahl found that this implicitly lucid “volitional dreaming” commonly appears in ethnographic accounts of dreaming. In cultures where “generative” theory holds sway, dreaming of something is understood to cause it to happen in the waking world. This leads people to experience lucid dreams as opportunities to create or do magic. By contrast, people who believe dreams are what one sees during “soul travel” use lucid dreams as an opportunity to spiritually visit real places. “Even when we consciously disbelieve our dreams,” Dahl said, “They still affect us at a deeper, emotional level that we can’t easily control with reason.” “All of this shows that cultural dream theories are multiple, that people invoke them in complex ways, and that they are at the very core of what lucid dreaming is and what it makes possible,” said Lohmann. This story was originally published by Trent University on, July 15, 2014. Is has been edited for style, brevity and clarity and appears here with permission.
In money we trust
U of T Staff (With introduction by Patchen Barss) | October 20, 2014A few years ago, late, late at night, I was tooling around the streets of Ottawa in the back seat of a Jeep being driven by former Bank of Canada Governor David Dodge. American economist and Nobel Laureate George Akerlof was riding shotgun. read more »