Premature babies often suffer from respiratory distress. Fred Possmayer and Goran Enhorning developed techniques to isolate, purify and sterilize lung surfactant — a substance that allows lungs to expand and breathe — so that it could be used clinically. This preparation, using surfactant extracted from cows’ lungs, is known as bovine lipid extract surfactant. One version of such surfactant, BLES®, is made in London and used by nearly all neonatal intensive care units in Canada and in many other countries. This research has saved the lives of premature babies around the world.