Toronto Star: York University study takes on ‘controversy’ over honey bee declines, pesticide use
July 5, 2017A major new study conducted in Ontario and Quebec corn fields has found that neonicotinoids, a widely-used and controversial class of pesticides, hurt the health of honey bees, and comes as provincial, federal, and international regulators wrestle with reining in the use of these agrochemicals. The Canadian research, led by biologists at York University, is published in the journal Science along with another ambitious study conducted in European fields. Together, they address a major gap. “They are putting these bees into landscapes where farmers are really farming,” says Professor Nigel Raine, Rebanks family chair in pollinator conservation at the University of Guelph, who was not involved in the research. “The key message that’s coming out of both of them is that they found impacts on honey bee colonies. Previously that has not been found in the field, and that has been a source of confusion.” Both honey bees and wild bees have suffered dramatic declines in recent decades. Bees are critically important pollinators for many crops and most wild flowering plants; estimates of the benefits they provide humans through these “ecosystem services” is measured in the tens of billions of dollars. Read the full article here.
Globe and Mail: A tale of two Canadas: Where you grew up affects your income in adulthood
June 30, 2017In Canada, geography is destiny: Your financial future, to a surprisingly large degree, depends on the place in Canada where you happen to grow up. That reality is revealed on this map and our accompanying set of interactive graphics, produced using a new analysis of millions of Canadians’ income data, the result of years of work by economist Miles Corak. His study charts intergenerational economic mobility – that is, the chance that people who spent their childhood in that location ended up, as adults, higher on the income and economic-status ranking than their parents. If a region is bright green, there is a high chance that kids who grew up in that region will, by the time they’re in their 40s, be in a higher-income group than their parents were at the same age (wherever those offspring end up living). In the bright red areas, the majority of children grow up to have adult financial success levels similar to, or less than, their parents. Read the full article here.
EurekAlert!: World’s largest sleep study launches from Western University
June 27, 2017Renowned Western University neuroscientist Adrian Owen has launched the world's largest sleep-and-cognition study to help researchers learn the effects on our brains of sleep and sleep deprivation. "Many of us are working more erratic hours and sleeping less, while the pace of our lives seems to be accelerating," said Owen, who is the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Cognitive Neuroscience and Imaging at The Brain and Mind Institute at Western and Chief Scientific Officer at Cambridge Brain Sciences. "We know that this sleep disruption affects us in some ways, and that some people feel the impact more than others, but there's surprisingly little research into exactly how our brains deal with these sleep deficits." Sleep loss is a global problem that saps billions of dollars of productivity from the world economy and endangers lives. Lack of sleep is linked to physical ailments such as heart disease, obesity, and diabetes and can impair driving abilities at least as significantly as alcohol intoxication. Yet the ability to function on just a few hours of sleep -- to work around the clock on an assignment or drive all night to a vacation destination -- remains a socially acceptable point of pride for many people. Read the full article here.
London Free Press: Western University researchers study impact of food waste
June 23, 2017There’s no question; efforts to reduce the amount of household organic waste reaching London’s W12A landfill will play a critical role in addressing the looming capacity problem on Manning Drive. More than one tonne of waste is produced per person in London, according to City of London numbers. Around 45 per cent of that waste is diverted from the landfill through waste reduction, recycling, and composting programs, but the rest is contributing to an increasingly time-sensitive problem — W12A, a dumping ground for London garbage since 1977, is on pace to reach maximum volume by 2025. The largest chunk of household waste in the landfill (another 45 per cent, according to the City) is organic, which means food waste is a major culprit. Discussions at city hall over the past few years seem to be focused on addressing trash-related issues by expanding waste diversion programs. Those ideas, including the introduction of a green bin program for organics, are still being considered. But what if we’ve been asking the wrong questions? A couple of Western University researchers have a hunch that’s the case. The right question, they believe, is this: Why are Londoners throwing away so much food to begin with? Read the full article here.
University of Guelph: Red onions pack a cancer-fighting punch, study reveals
June 23, 2017The next time you walk down the produce aisle of your grocery store, you may want to reach for red onions if you are looking to fight off cancer. In the first study to examine how effective Ontario-grown onions are at killing cancer cells, U of G researchers have found that not all onions are created equal. Engineering professor Suresh Neethirajan and PhD student Abdulmonem Murayyan tested five onion types grown in Ontario and discovered the Ruby Ring onion variety came out on top. Onions as a superfood are still not well known. But they contain one of the highest concentrations of quercetin, a type of flavonoid, and Ontario onions boast particularly high levels of the compound compared to onions grown elsewhere in the world. Read the full article here.
NPR: Using music to ease hearing loss
June 6, 2017Trying to make out what someone is saying in a noisy environment is a problem most people can relate to, and one that gets worse with age. At 77, Linda White hears all right in one-on-one settings but has problems in noisier situations. "Mostly in an informal gathering where people are all talking at once," she says. "The person could be right beside you, but you still don't hear them." White, a retired elementary school teacher and principal, has not gotten hearing aids, although she says she probably will in the future. Instead, she's part of a group of people testing out a different intervention for dealing with hearing loss: learning music. She is part of an ongoing study organized by Frank Russo, a professor of psychology and director of the Science of Music, Auditory Research and Technology Lab, or SMART Lab, at Ryerson University in Toronto. He says understanding speech in noise is a top complaint among older adults with hearing loss. Read the full article here.